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Inflammatory bowel diseases are clinical conditions involving the large intestine or small intestine. They progress with inflammation in the intestinal wall and cause changes in the intestinal structure (stenosis, etc.) in the long term. They cause symptoms such as intense and bloody diarrhea, decrease in body general resistance, abdominal pain in patients.


These diseases are in the group of diseases called autoimmune. The mechanism of formation of autoimmune diseases can be summarized as follows. The immune system in the human body works with the principle of recognizing and fighting against foreign substances and organisms that enter the body under normal conditions and has the power to destroy these external factors. It does not use this destructive power against the body's own tissues and organs. There are many mechanisms that enable the immune system to recognize its own tissue. In autoimmune diseases, some of these mechanisms are damaged and the immune system perceives certain tissues of the body as foreign and attacks and destroys them. Every attack is a trauma and causes an inflammatory response. Diseases that develop when the body's own immune system attacks tissues and organs are called autoimmune diseases.

Inflammatory bowel diseases are mainly of two types:


  1. Crohn's Disease: It can affect both the small and large intestines. It mainly concerns the small intestine. Although they give symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain, they can also be noticed with non-healing fissures and fistulas in the anal region. The diagnosis is made pathologically by colonoscopy and biopsies taken at colonoscopy. In its treatment, mainly immunosuppressive drugs are used. When intestinal complications develop (stenosis, fistula development, etc.), surgical treatment comes to the fore. Removal of the diseased bowel section in the most limited way in surgical treatment is the main principle.  

  2. Ulcerative Colitis: It involves the large intestine and most often the sigmoid colon and rectum. Bloody diarrhea is the most obvious symptom. It progresses with attacks, causing a serious decrease in general body resistance during attacks. The diagnosis is made by biopsies taken during colonoscopy, just as in Crohn's Disease. Immunosuppressive drugs are used in its treatment. If control is not achieved despite medications, surgical treatment comes to the fore. In surgical treatment, the entire large intestine is removed from the beginning to the anus, and a chamber is prepared from the small intestine instead of the rectum and connected to the anal canal. It is important that no large intestine tissue is left behind because it causes recurrence of the disease. In this surgery, the small intestine is temporarily attached to the bag, and the bag is closed within a few months, ensuring intestinal continuity. 

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